Primary prevention is "a long-term strategy preventing violence from ever happening by changing attitudes, values and structures that sustain inequality and violence" (Hester and Westmarland, 2005, p.15).Interventions at the primary level are aimed at whole populations usually through universal mainstream services, and aim to make small changes in large numbers of people (Partnerships Against Domestic Violence, 2003).Among some of the elements that keeps the woman in silence about her suffering are various behavioural paralysing process related to and generated by fear; the perception of the absence of escaping ways or ways outs for the victim; and the lack of alternative resources, about all in women with children who cannot see, due to different causes, a feasible external source of help.
Dutton and Painter (1981) have depicted a scenario in which two factors, the power imbalance and the intermittent good-bad treatment, generate in the battered woman a traumatic bonding that ties her with the aggressor through behaviours of docility.
According to Dutton et al., the abusecreates and maintains a dynamics of dependence in the couple due to its asymmetric effect over the power balance, being the traumatic bonding produced by the alternation of reinforcement and punishment.
"Domestic abuse (as gender-based abuse), can be perpetrated by partners or ex-partners and can include physical abuse (assault and physical attack involving a range of behaviour), sexual abuse (acts which degrade and humiliate women and are perpetrated against their will, including rape) and mental and emotional abuse (such as threats, verbal abuse, racial abuse, withholding money and other types of controlling behaviour such as isolation from family or friends)." (Scottish Executive, 2000, p.5)Domestic abuse is overwhelmingly, but not exclusively, enacted by men against women.
It is a serious infringement of women's Human Rights and "is associated with broader gender inequality, and should be understood in its historical context, whereby societies have given greater status, wealth, influence, control and power to men" (Scottish Partnership on Domestic Abuse, 2000, p.2).
The provides a framework in Scotland for "identifying training and development activity required to support improvement in services to women and children who are experiencing domestic abuse, and to men who use violence" (Scottish Executive, 2004b, p.1) but also has relevance for primary prevention work.
Specifically in relation to prevention, the Scottish Executive published .The judge or magistrate's interim bond can include conditions, such as having no contact with the victim.(See 2001 PA 198.) Other, more serious assault crimes can occur in domestic relationships -- such as Assault With a Dangerous Weapon (felony - up to 4 years and/or ,000), Assault With Intent to Commit Great Bodily Harm Less Than Murder (felony - up to 10 years or ,000), Assault With Intent to Commit Murder (felony - Life, or any number of years), etc.Secondary prevention refers to when domestic abuse is already evident and action is taken to stop it getting worse or recurring.The identifies this as potentially taking the form of targeted specialist services with identified populations deemed 'at risk' and support services for women and children experiencing domestic abuse along with programmes for abusive men. Helping Teens Stop violence: A practical guide for counselors, educators, and parents. a site about relationships and abuse designed by teens for teens.