They generalized this observation to assert that the rate of evolutionary change of any specified protein was approximately constant over time and over different lineages (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)).The genetic equidistance phenomenon was first noted in 1963 by Emanuel Margoliash, who wrote: "It appears that the number of residue differences between cytochrome c of any two species is mostly conditioned by the time elapsed since the lines of evolution leading to these two species originally diverged.
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The state of physics today is like it was when we were mystified by radioactivity.
They were missing something absolutely fundamental. We are missing perhaps something as profound as they were back then.If this is correct, the cytochrome c of all mammals should be equally different from the cytochrome c of all birds.Since fish diverges from the main stem of vertebrate evolution earlier than either birds or mammals, the cytochrome c of both mammals and birds should be equally different from the cytochrome c of fish.By the mid-1940s, Willard Libby realized that the decay of C research—his life’s work—Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960, and the age of radioactive dating was born.Before we delve into radioactive decay and its use in dating rocks, let’s review some essential nuclear physics concepts.The benchmarks for determining the mutation rate are often fossil or archaeological dates.