These fossils were used to inform age constraints in a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of a sequence alignment comprising two sequences from the chloroplast genome () and one nuclear locus (ITS), sampled from 106 taxa representing 80 genera.Three additional analyses were calibrated by placing pollen fossils using geographic and morphological information (eight calibrations), macrofossils (five calibrations), and macrofossils and pollen fossils in combination (12 calibrations).However, the pollen record can also inform age calibrations if fossils matching extant pollen groups are found.
Eyewitness accounts of extreme weather events such as storms or droughts combined with information about famine can also be used to assess the impact of climate fluctuations on societies.
In addition, natural disasters such as the eruption of volcanoes can provide valuable information in assessing the nature of climate change.
(E) doesn't explain the discrepancy because we're concerned about the end of a specific Ice Age and how soon beetles and pollen "came back" to a certain area.(E) is concerned with the entire history of the planet.
It just tells us that many beetles existed on this planet long before many warm-weather plants.
Another great thing is that pollen grains are very resistant.
They make a very resistant organic wall called sporopollenin and this wall can survive through almost anything.A famous example of such an event is the eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland in 1783 which caused a dry, sulphurous fog in Europe, blocking the sun and depressing temperatures.However, some of this type of evidence is anecdotal.A) suggest that we didn't really see warm-weather beetles return right away, we saw cold-weather beetles.The warm-weather ones showed up later, with the warm-weather plant pollen, once the glacier had left.The identification and application of reliable fossil calibrations represents a key component of many molecular studies of evolutionary timescales.