29) that actively discouraged members from studying the historicity of the Book of Mormon because such efforts would prove "fruitless," that differing theories regarding Book of Mormon geography would "undermine faith" and that any theories put forth by scholars were nothing more than "personal speculations." LDS critics maintain that the BOM is a work of fiction created in the 19th century.
Critics do not accept that the BOM relates an actual history of real people who came to the Americas and were steel-smelting, chariot-driving, Christ-worshipping, temple-building people multiplying into millions, yet left absolutely no trace of their existence.
Hanover, NH: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.
Delaney (1988) Borehole investigations of the electrical properties of frozen silt. 2 of Proceeding of the Fifth International Conference on Permafrost in Trondheim, Norway, August 1988, ed.
This is because I am reviewing the volume, in the main, for scholars in the humanities disciplines rather than for scientists; therefore I shall attempt to interest and inform both audiences.
Archaeology is, indeed, one of the humanities (so-defined by the United States Congress in 1965), but it is also one that has borrowed paradigms, methods, and analytical techniques, and adopted analogies and inferences from many of the natural, physical, and social sciences, and the humanities.
No archaeological, linguistic, genetic or any other evidence of Hebrew culture in the Americas has ever been found to support the existence of such a people portrayed in the BOM.
The book also contains numerous anachronisms like horses, elephants, wheat, barley, steel, silk, etc., that scientists say didn't exist in the Americas during BOM times.
Doubling of the concentration of C, New Zealand and Austria.
The New Zealand curve is representative for the Southern Hemisphere, the Austrian curve is representative for the Northern Hemisphere.
As discussed above and in the Radiolab episode, Elements (section 'Carbon'), C by the biosphere, can be considered as a chronometer.
Starting from the pulse around the years 1963 (see figure), atmospheric radiocarbon decreased with 1% a year.
By measuring the amount of C left in the dead organism permits to calculate how long ago it died.