Geological analysis relies mainly on chemistry, physics and mathematics. a'a' lava - basaltic lava characterized by a rough or rubbly surface composed of broken lava blocks called clinker.
A-horizon - The uppermost layer of a soil, containing organic material and leached minerals.
alkaline - Term pertaining to a highly basic, as opposed to acidic, substance.
It's still debated exactly how eukaryotes arose, but the most accepted hypothesis is that an archea swallowed a bacterial cell, and the two developed a symbiotic relationships that allowed them to work together to become more complex.
Eventually, the bacteria became the mitochondria we see in our cells today.
The study of fossils across geological time, how they were formed, and the evolutionary relationships between taxa (phylogeny) are some of the most important functions of the science of paleontology.
Such a preserved specimen is called a "fossil" if it is older than some minimum age, most often the arbitrary date of 10,000 years.
Fossils may also consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces (coprolites).
These types of fossil are called trace fossils (or ichnofossils), as opposed to body fossils.
That would not help the organism survive, but by ensuring reproduction it would keep the species alive.
All the ammonoids died at the end of the Cretaceous in the same mass extinction that killed off the dinosaurs.
Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them.
The Greek derivation of the word "geology" refers only to the Earth, but since the beginning of the space age, the field has expanded to include the study of the solid matter of other celestial bodies, such as Mars and the Moon.
The observation that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led early geologists to recognize a geological timescale in the 19th century.